2 December 2020
WHERE IS JUKA’S MONEY? (SST: part 7)
Last year, by the order of the Cantonal Prosecutor’s Office of Sarajevo Canton, Elvedin Mahmutovic, the director of Smart Invest doo Sarajevo and Sedin Halilagic, the director of the “Sarajevo Tower” project were arrested on the charges of committing a criminal offence of receiving a gift. As the public already knows, Halilagic took 30,000 Euros on 10 July 2019 in the apartment 102 of the residential-business structure “Panamera” in Ilidza from Elmedin Pinjic, also called Hodza – the manager of the Euro profil commerce, as a first instalment of 200,000 BAM in total.
After more than two months, on 30 September 2019 the indictment by the Cantonal Prosecutor’s Office of Sarajevo Canton stated that Halilagic in collusion with Mahmutovic asked for, and received a gift in order to do something that they should do anyways because of their position.
According to the indictment, Mahmutovic and Halilagic demanded that Pinjic pays them the amount of 200,000BAM so they would, as persons responsible for that, sign of the completion of construction works and approve additional construction works, while being aware they had to do that anyways, and conditioning Pinjic to pay them the given amount of money by threatening him with the bank guarantee acquired for that job, which he accepted and payed the first instalment. The series of texts named “Where is Juka’s money?” and based on material evidence and conversations/correspondences of the individuals relevant in the construction of “Sarajevo Tower” we are going to reveal information how the Euro-profil commerce – Hodza’s firm got the job in the first place, why Juka’s firm MTH-ARI quit the façade works, how the extra 200,000 BAM even appeared and is that money a debt to MTH-ARI (owner Jusuf Muhic aka Juka), is this a case of the previous debt settlements, did the authorities “bought the wrong story” and a business debt characterized as a bribe, and who has responsibility towards for more than 400 apartment buyers.
The biggest curiosity of this story is the fact that the contractor and a facade worker Juka still to this day, 15 moths after arrests, does not know who has his 200,000BAM, he is still trying to find his money and does not know where they could possibly disappear.
The prosecutor Bogunic who arrested Halilagic and Mahmutovic has not paid too much attention to the fact that Juka searches for his 200,000BAM so he concluded that at the moment of the arrests Halilagic and Pinjic were exchanging first 60,000BAM out of 200,000BAM bribe.
The public will have a chance to decipher on their own was this a bribe or a debt in amount of 200,000BAM, and who owns money to Juka.
Project: Construction of a residential-business structure “Sarajevo Tower”
Co-investor: ANS DRIVE AND SMART INVEST (50:50)
Cost of investment: One hundred million BAM
The general contractor: ANS Drive
Consequences of the project: the project not finished, apartments buyers suffer damage, on-going criminal procedures
Planned end-date: 31 July 2019
Etika.ba published on 28 October 2020 the Analysis of delayed construction of “Sarajevo Tower”, which Korekt doo Sarajevo delivered to the parties involved with this project on 13 October 2020.
Because of the great interest of the public, buyers and construction and judicial community, and because of the risk of corruption in the judiciary it has been justified and in the interest of public publishing this specialist report in full for the public to see.
The Analysis describes a conflict of the co-investor Smart Invest doo with the general contactor ANS Drive doo and subcontractor for facade works Euro Profil doo. Roles of the Sberbank BH and Sparkasse Bank BH are explained, as well as the role of the prosecutor Sanin Bogunic. You can read the entire Analysis here.
A big number of readers and the expert public contacted Etika.ba with a request to explain in more detail the situation regarding Juka’s lost 200,000BAM, so the general public could on their own judge, based on the facts, has the prosecutor Sanin Bogunic unadvisedly, using a nightstick, resolved an obligational entanglement around Juka’s 200,000BAM in a way that the renamed this debt into the bribe, and that way arrested the director of Smart Invest.
With the goal of informing the expert public and aficionados of complex obligational entanglements, Etika.ba is going to present all the facts related to Juka’s missing 200,000BAM, and because there is no reliable conclusion how could Juka get his 200,000BAM, we invite the expert public to immerse into this problem and send their solution of this obligational-criminal Gordian knot, and Etika.ba is going to publish serious comments.
This is how Juka asked a judge at one of the hearings to help him: “Am I going to get my 200 grand back, I do not care what somebody wrote, who corresponds with who, the fact is that somebody owns me 200 grand” so we are going to point this Juka’s appeal towards the expert public to involve into solving this puzzle.
Over a year ago the Cantonal Prosecutor’s Office of Sarajevo Canton filed the intictment that states that Sedin Halilagic and Elvedin Mahmutovic, both related to “Smart Invest”, which is a co-investor in the “Sarajevo Tower” project, extorted from Elmedin Pinjic aka Hodza, the manager of the Euro Profil commerce, which is engaged in the facade works on Sarajevo Tower, a gift of 200,000BAM. The indictment presents that the 200,000BAM of bribe was asked to approve Hodza’s construction works done in accordance to the contract, and to approve additional works. Is this indeed the case of racketeering, we are going to explain factual state based on the evidence in possession of Korekt doo, but also the public testimonies and conversations/correspondences between individuals relevant in this project.
Residential-business project “Sarajevo Tower” is co-financed by Smart Invest and Ans Drive, with the fact that Ans Drive is the general contractor. Collaboration between these two companies started before the Sarajevo Tower project, when Ans Drive was the general contractor at the other residential-business structure – “Panamera” in Ilidza. During that other project, subcontractor for the facade works was a firm called “MTH-ARI” owned by Jusuf Muhic aka Juka. Collaboration between MTH ARI and Ans Drive dates for many years and some of the bigger buildings in Sarajevo (Sarajevo City Center (SCC), BBI, Grand Centar) they constructed together. It was more than expected that this collaboration would be continued in the construction of Sarajevo Tower, however a sudden twist occurs. We will explain below what exactly happened.
Panamera is a hotel and a touristic complex in Ilidza. The director of Panamera is Elvedin Mahmutovic who is at the same time the director of Smart Invest – a co-investor in a Sarajevo Tower project. When couple of years ago (in 2016) Panamera as an investor had built their complex in Ilidza, they had chosen Ans Drive as the general contractor. Ans Drive at his building sites always uses several different subcontractors. One of the standard subcontractors is a firm called “MTH-ARI” in charge of facade works, and the owner and the director of that firm is Jusuf Muhic aka Juka. Invoices for all the work in Panamera project Juka had sent to the general contractor Ans Drive. The general contractor had further sent the invoices to the investor – Panamera. The investor paid all of the facade works to the general contractor, but the general contractor has not paid the subcontractor Juka and the debt of Ans Drive towards Juka amounted. Juka testified in a hearing of a criminal procedure in 2020 that he subsequently found out that Panamera paid everything to Ans Drive, and that the Ans Drive for some time works in a way that they carry debts towards subcontractors for several years. The debt of Ans Drive towards Juka amounted to several hundreds of thousands of BAM.
“….I have evidence, invoices, from the bank, every payment, the first temporary situation, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight and finished that we just talked about, Panamera paid to every last pfenning”, Juka explained in the courtroom of the Sarajevo Municipal Court.
CESSION FOR DEBT AND SARAJEVO TOWER FAÇADE WORKS BID SETTLEMENT
After Juka found out that Ans Drive is co-investor and the general contractor on the Sarajevo Tower project, he submits a bid for the facade works and appurtenant scaffolding at the residental-business structure, and he agreed terms for delivery of construction materials with Bahrudin Zjaja the owner of the “Percon”. Total amount of his bid was 2.6 million BAM and it was delivered in December 2018. Before the bid had been submitted, and considering a long-term cooperation between Juka’s company and Ans Drive there were unsettled financial relations.
“I had been cheated with that document in October of 2018. The director of Ans Drive, Asmir Dzevlan invited me to his firm and asked if I maybe had a stamp with me, in his colloquial way just like we always communicated, he asked me to come to his firm and sign something. He slipped me this document in his office, and I of course signed it without reading it like always because we never read each other’s documents, thinking it was a regular procedure. Do you know what you have signed he asked. I no longer own you 300 or 250 thousand, I now own you 60 thousand and Panamera owns you 200 thousand” Juka testified in the hearing in the criminal case. According to Juka, he signed a cession. You can see the document here.
“I always believed that people would not cheat me, but after some time i realized that it was a typical scam by Ans Drive because I had contracts with them and they were the ones who owned me money, I was not interested in Panamera or any of the investors” Juka said in the courtroom.
By signing the cession a part of the debt, in amount of around 200,000BAM was transfered to Panamera. We alredy explained that Panamera paid all of the facade works, and Ans Drive tried to settle some other claims from Panamera. Namely, Ans Drive had some additional works on Panamera but had never delivered a final situation and the bank guarantee for the warranty period, so that expense that Panamera had to pay when the situation is resolved was hovering around, but the timeline was prolonged because of complaints and additional works needed to be done. Ans Drive obviously tried with this cession to find a way to collect their receivables from Panamera, but without finished situation and without delivering the bank guarantee for the warranty period. This move from Ans Drive caused revolt from Panamera and subsequently from Juka. This way 2018 ended with a dilemma if the Panamera was going to accept and book the cession and accept the debt towards Juka in amount of 200,000BAM, while at the same time Juka bids for a facade job in the Sarajevo Tower project.
NEGOTIATIONS OF THE ARRESTED HALILAGIC WITH JUKA
Sedin Halilagic is the director of the Sarajevo Tower project on the behalf of co-investor Smart Invest, and at the same time an employee of Panamera from the time when Panamer was being built, so Sedin Halilagic represents interconnected legal entities “Smart Invest” and “Panamera”. In the end of 2018 the following plan between “Smart Invest”, “Ans Drive”, “Panamera” and Juka emerges: Panamera accepts the cession and accepts the debt of Ans Drive towards Juka in amount of 200,000BAM; After this it was agreed that debt settlement between Panamera and Smart Invest (interconnected legal entities) at one side and Juka (MTH-ARI) on the other is done in a way that Juka gives up his claims in the amount of 200,000BAM from Panamera via a credit note, and in a new bid for the Sarajevo Tower Juka is compensated for that 200,000BAM in a way that his bid of 1.6 million BAM without VAT is raised to 1.8 million without VAT, and accepted. This agreement had been made between Sedin Halilagic, Jusuf Muhic Juka and Bahrudin Zjaja, and the written trail about this, which you can see by clicking here, exists. This agreement was honoured by both sides in a way that Juka gave the credit note to Panamera, in the amount of 200,000BAM (you can see the credit note here), and the Smart Invest approved Juka’s bid dating from 06 January 2019, raised by 200,000BAM (approval of Smart Invest can be found here) and debt were settled and none of the sides was short-changed. Besides this deal about settling this 200,000BAM in Juka’s raised bid included initially defined additional price of 450,000BAM + VAT for installing scaffolding, and it had been agreed for this expense to be raised to 525,000BAM + VAT, so that Ans Drive clears their debt of around 70,000BAM towards Juka.
Conclusion: Ans Drive, Panamera and Smart Invest tranfered old unsettled claims with Juka to the Sarajevo Tower project.
By these agreements, the debt of Ans Drive towards Juka was transferred by cession to Panamera, than Juka “excused” this debt to Panamera but he was compensated through his raised bid for the facade works and scaffolding installation on Sarajevo Tower.
In this phase it looked like all combinations regarding obligational entanglements ended well.
“In a restaurant called “Previla” in Ilidza i met with the owner of “Ans Drive” Alija Gadzo to whom I presented complete documentation regarding negotiations with Smart Invest, while Gadzo and the director of Ans Drive Asmir Dzevlan were familiarized with a formal request to raise the bid, based on what Gadzo and Dzevlan concluded that Sedin Halilagic and Elvedin Mahmutovic their own initiative and without their consent want to settle an old debt through this new contract, and that this case is going to court.” explained Juka. Dzevlan admitted in court that he reacted in a short-tempered manner when Juka showed him documents referring to negotiation with Smart Invest, that is settlement of old debts, which were transferred by cession from Ans Drive to Panamera. “I told him I am goind to sue him, his firm and “Smart Invest”. After that Juka left the restaurant after couple of minutes and a allegedly contacted my chief of technical operations and told him that he ended up at the emergency unit and sent a memo next day informing us that because of the health reasons he quits the job.” Dzevlan stated. The director of Smart Invest Elvedin Mahmutovic stated that Asmir Dzevlan was the one who asked him to accept cession and settlements, and he decided to accept in order to meet Dzevlan’s request. And that was not the case only with Juka, but with several other subcontractors. In favor of claims that Dzevlan knew about settlements goes the fact that besides the 200,000BAM raised in favour of the director of Smart Invest Mahmutovic, another 75,000BAM raised for scaffolding purposes was in favour of ANS Drive director Asmir Dzevlan. Additional proof that Ans Drive knew and participated in these agreements is the fact that the new facade worker Hodza signed a contract with the sum raised for 200,000BAM for facade works, which does not go in line with statements of the director of Ans Drive that he was “angry” because these 200,000BAM were going to be settled through this new contract.
After the meeting in “Previla” in Ilidza, which happened on Saturday, Juka discusses the matter with his family members and they suggest him that he quits by saying: “you are not hungry, why do you need this in your life, it is going to kill you, you are going to die because you will not be able to withstand the stress related to this building and investment”. On Monday Juka notifies Ans Drive that he backs out of the job and pulling his bid for facade works on Sarajevo Tower. Did he say goodbye to his 200,000BAM, which were in the contract, by quitting this job remains to be seen.
HODZA THE NEW FAÇADE WORKER AND JUKA THE OLD FAÇADE WORKER
As explained by the director Dzevlan in the courtroom, at the moment when Juka backed out of this job it was very important to choose the new facade workers in order for construction to start, because “prices of the apartments were negotiated with buyers, and some of the contracts were linked to the beginning of the facade works, including payments from the buyers, so it was necessary that the contractor was included in the project as soon as possible”.
“I contacted the supplier “Percon”, Bahrudin Zjaja to see if he had any suggestions as a supplier because that system they were offering was important to us, the subcontractor was less important and in the end he suggested Euro Profil. To my knowledge, that was when they contacted him…” stated Dzevlan. In relation to that Juka stated: “I was the one who suggested Hodza to Zjaja, he was sceptical about him, but I encouraged him that it will function…”. Was Euro Profil only then contacted in a relation to facade works at Sarajevo Tower is questionable, because Juka claims in his interview with Korekt doo that Hodza knew everything, he was always nearby, reading his emails including the “document Sedin made about settling debts” (raising the bid for 200,000BAM). Juka and Hodza had an agreement that Hodza would be Juka’s subcontractor, and Hodza encouraged Juka to accept the job, and that his firm is going to perform all of his works, but Juka could not dare to be the one and get the bank guarantee because the thought Hodza is going to trick him and he would be at risk of activating the bank guarantee. Juka stated that Hodza offered him those 200,000BAM but he knew that Hodza did not have that kind of money.
“How can he give me the money when he does not have it. I was not expecting that he would give me the money, I just wanted to get this job of my back. I said to him: Hodza I am sending the letter, sent it he said (letter about quitting the job). I sent the letter to Ans Drive and Smart Invest. I have witnesses, Zjaja and others when he was sitting in my office and said “I going to give you 200 thousand”. There is Zjaja, one men who installed windows with me – Keno, my cooperants..at that point i did not know what Hodza’s intentions were”, Juka stated explaining that Rifo can confirm that Hodza said to him that he would gove him 200 thousand. “It was not like go, sign it. Hodza said to me: “as soon as i get the advance payment I am going to give you 200 thousand, it is not a problem…Objectively I did not expect 200 thousand from Hodza, I am not interested in Hodza, however I am interesting to him, this was more like he was going to treat me, you know f**k it I am giving him my job, and he was like f**k 200 thousand”, Juka said in his interview with Korekt doo.
Journalist: “And if he had treated you everything would be fine?”
Juka: “No it would not, I would still sue them.”
Journalist: “Still? 200 thousand and then another 200?”
Juka: “Where does it say that he treated me?”
After Juka sent a letter in which he explained that he quits, Euro Profil commerce sent a bid identical to Juka’s to Smart Invest and Ans Drive, with only the front page changed, and it said Euro Profil commerce instead of Juka’s company MTH-ARI. Juka emailed his bid from Euro Profil commerce email, and they just changed names and information about companies, and sent the bid to co-investors of the Sarajevo Tower project. “I have information that Euro Profil commerce managed by Elmedin Pinjic aka Hodza signed a contract for facade works and installation of scaffolding at Sarajevo Tower in the same amount like I offered to Smart Invest on 06 January” Juka stated. When Pinjic signed the contract he recieved an advanced payment of 600,000BAM, out of which he said he would pay 200,000BAM to Juka, but when that did not happen he said “You have to go to police and report them, and you will get your money in 3 days”. “Am I going to get my 200 thousand, I do not care about what someone wrote or corresponded with whom, as far as I am concerned somebody owns me 200 thousand”, Juka asked in a courtroom more than a year after these events.
A NEW FAÇADE WORKER HODZA ENTERS BUSINESS
After all entanglements with Juka’s 200 thousand BAM, in a weird set of circumstances Hodza became the new facade workes, and took over Juka’s 200,000BAM. Sedin Halilagic from Smart Invest was a key negotiator with Juka about all agreements, but it happened that Juke did not send his letter of resignation from this job to Smart Invest, but to Ans Drive. When Dzevlan from Ans Drive and Bahrudin Zjajo from Percon and Juka decided to find a substitute, the chief engineer from Ans Drive notified Sedin Halilagic from Smart Invest that the change of a subcontractor happened and that everything is already agreed. Sedin Halilagic did not asked too much question about the agreement, but he thought that Juka would not back out of the job without reason, and without working out details about his 200,000BAM with his replacement. That is how Sedin Halilagic concluded that details about the 200 thousand were resolved. The next four months, from 07 February 2019 when Hodza signed te contract increased for 200,000BAM for facade works and 75,000BAM for scaffolding, were full of numerous unprofessional and out of contract procedures by Euro Profil during the construction, which will not be analysed here because they were elaborated in detail in the Analysis of delayed construction of Sarajevo Tower.
Actions of Euro Profil in the first four months, before Halilagic and Mahmutovic were arrested can be summed through the fact that they managed to do only 3% of the works, that they assembled a wrong scaffolding at the construction site, that they did not manage to secure a bank guarantee in time, that they did not manage do agree delivery of materials on time, that they tried to install materials which were not part of the contract, that all of his partners accused him of not having a qualified workers, which was why Ans Drive had been warning them for three days they are going to activate the bank guarantee, which Smart Invest had also done in their letter and which is all contrary to findings of the prosecutor Bogunic who in the indictment against Halilagic and Mahmutovic stated that:
“According to the indictment, Mahmutovic and Halilagic demanded that Pinjic pays them the amount of 200,000BAM so they would, as persons responsible for that, sign of the completion of construction works and approve additional construction works, while being aware they had to do that anyways, and conditioning Pinjic to pay them the given amount of money by threatening him with the bank guarantee acquired for that job, which he accepted and payed the first instalment”.
In the abovementioned Analysis by Korekt doo, which could not be disputed by Ans Drive and Euro Profil doo with retractions, it is obvious that the prosecutor’s findings are incorrect, and that additional works cannot be approved to somebody that did not performed even 3% of his contractual obligations, and also these 3% was the works which were ok, the only thing that was not signed of by the investor were full amounts of situations, because it was planned to deduct situations from the advanced payment. After 4 months of bad construction work Hodza got himself in the dead-end situation with numerous real and objective arguments to activate his nak guarantees. Juka paraphrased to Korekt the dramatic moment with Hodza regarding activation of his bank guarantee:
“Why did Hodza come to my office three or four times in that moment? Eeee, heeelloo, helloooo…Come on, listen to me, they activated my bank guarantee, man they want to arrest me, I sad that I will return the contract (Hodza saying that), man I do not need that. I still do not know what tampering is going on there and in what kind of shit they are (Juka saying that). I am still counting that somebody is going to pay me for my job, they are going to pay for this, and they call me a Vlach and a Turk. He then told me I don’t know what am I going to do, where to go, what to do (Hodza saying that). I don’t understand a thing (Juka saying).”
Then Hodza got an idea to report Sedin Halilagic and Elvedin Mahmutovic from Smart Invest with the theory that they are without any reason refusing to sign off his construction works, that they donot want to approve him additional works and they threaten him with the bank guarantee, and all that to get 200 thousand BAM of bribe from him. The prosecutor accepted this theory, and arrested Halilagic who collected the first instalment of 60,000BAM of the total 200,000BAM in the apartment 102 in Panamera in Ilidza on 10 July 2020.
Is this 200,000BAM Juka’s money, or is it a bribe, read below.
JUKA SENDS PRE-NOTICE LETTER ON 20 MAY 2019 AND COMPLICATES THING ADDITIONALLY
An important event for a destiny of Juka’s money happened on 20 May 2019. Smart Invest and Ans Drive get a pre-notice letter from Juka who claims his 200,000BAM. Sedin Halilagic and Elvedin Mahmutovic then conclude that Juka did not get his 200,000BAM when he left his job to Hodza. It is obvious that Hodza didn’t want to honor their verbal agreement and pay Juka his 200,000BAM, considering that he got the advanced payment in a middle of March, Juka probably hoped that he will get his money, but 2 months passed and he still didn’t get his money so he was starting to lose hope that Hodza will give him his money, and on 20 May 2020 he filed for pre-notice letter, not against Hodza but against Smart Invest and Ans Drive. It is logical to conclude that Juka would file a lawsuit against Smart Invest immediately in February when he left the facade work to Hodza if he did not think that Hodza would give him his money, but since he waited for Hodza the lawsuit happened on 20 May 2020. It is interesting that Juka threaten to sue smart Invest, but in the lawsuit from the end of 2019 he changed his mind and sued Panamera for his credit note. Korekt asked Juka why he didn’t sue Hodza for his money, and Juka said that they had those conversations but they had never materialized, which means that Hodza and Juka never signed anything. Considering that Juka several time before lent money to Hodza in cash, and Hodza paid him back through bank while writing that it was a loan in question, which is why the books said that Juka owns Hodza money, Juka probably deducted that he was wrong about Hodza and that he will never give him his 200,000BAM.
That is the reason Juka took a step back in the whole process, for which he has a paper evidence, and decided to sue Smart Invest and later Panamera and Ans Drive for his 200,000BAM, accusing Ans Drive that he was tricked into signing the cession and accusing Panamera for the credit note he gave. Because of that Juka contradictory claims that Hodza does not own him 200,000BAM, and all because he is aware that he did not resolve anything by letting Hodza do his job, although Hodza said in front of witnesses that he would give him 200,000BAM as soon as he gets the advanced payment. Juka made a mistake because he could have filed a lawsuit against Hodza with statements of witnesses who were present when the verbal agreement was made.
Up until 20 May 2020 Smart Invest could consider that Hodza has Juka’s 200,000BAM, but after Juka sent the pre-notice letter on 20 May and asked for his 200,000BAM from Smart Invest, the completely new situation occurred; the situation that Juka exited the agreement with Sedin Halilagic with whom he settled and because of which Juka’s bid had been raised from 1.6mil to 1.8mil BAM. Considering that Smart Invest honoured their part of the deal and approved the 200 thousand raise, which Juka later on his own initiative left to Hodza, Smart Invest deems that they already had given the 200,000BAM. When Juka’s pre-notice arrived Smart Invest deemed they will now have to pay Juka’s 200,000BAM two times. Smart Invest than concluded that Juka and Hodza want to cheat them for additional 200 thousand, and they decided to go to court with Juka about these 200,000BAM but in turned out that form 20 May 2020 Hodza is in possession of Smart Invest’s money, not Juka’s money.
The end of part one.
Sequel will be published on Monday 07 December 2020
In the sequel read about how a long-term obligational entanglement regarding Juka’s 200,000BAM was in a couple of days in May turned into a bribe theory. We are going to analyse two crucial meetings between Hodza and Sedin Halilagic on 28 May and 3 June 2020, and Hodza’s going to the police on 4 June and his statement from 10 June 2020, the express try of the prosecutor Bogunic to arrest someone happened on 14 June, and finally Juka’s arrival to the police on 27 June 2020 with Hodza, when the investigators conclude that Hodza states that the Smart Invest want 200,000BAM as a bribe, and Juka states that Smart Invest needs to pay him his 200,000BAM, and the investigators do not think that it was a same 200,000BAM in both cases.
Questions to think about:
- Was Juka in obligation to qualitatively agree on the status of his money when he quit the job and left it to Hodza?
- Are Ans Drive and Smart Invest obliged to cover a debt to Juka’s, or this is Juka’s fault for not signing anything with Hodza?
- Does Juka have any grounds to sue Hodza?
- Has Juka lost his 200 thousand forever?
REMARK: We are kindly asking people to send their questions and comments to the following email: firstname.lastname@example.org, to include additional explanations in the sequels.
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 Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible Mark – BAM
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